Grow Youthful: How to Slow Your Aging and Enjoy Extraordinary Health
Grow Youthful: How to Slow Your Aging and Enjoy Extraordinary Health


What is cancer?

The six (now seven) hallmarks of cancer

Symptoms of cancer

Cancer is a disease of energy metabolism

Causes of cancer


Causes of damage to mitochondria

Why oncologists don't get it, and don't want to get it

3BP is an effective treatment using the energy model

Anthelmintic benzimidazole drugs

Cancer remedies / treatments / prevention


What is cancer?

Conventional doctors and standard medicine describe cancer (the medical description is malignant neoplasm) as a broad group of over 200 diseases in which cell growth and communication gets out of control. A cancerous group of cells divide and grow abnormally. They can form malignant tumours, invade and destroy adjacent tissue, or metastasise (spread to other locations throughout the body via lymph or blood). Most cancers form a tumour, but some such as leukaemia do not.

Not all tumours are cancerous. Benign tumours do not grow uncontrollably, do not invade neighbouring tissues, and do not metastasise.

The standard medical treatment for cancer is a combination of one or more of chemotherapy, radiation therapy or surgery. When using these treatments, the survival rate depends upon the type and location of the cancer, the health of the patient, and the extent of disease at the start of treatment.

The risk of cancer increases with age, and the majority of people who are diagnosed with an invasive cancer are over the age of 65. The most common types of cancer in children are leukaemia, brain tumours, lymphomas and blastomas. According to the WHO, cancer caused about 17% of all human deaths worldwide in 2016, up from 13% in 2007. The most common forms are lung, stomach, liver, colorectal and breast cancer. Cancer is the leading cause of death in developed countries, and the second most common cause in developing countries.

Rates are rising as more people live to an older age and live a more cancer-prone lifestyle.

The six (now seven) hallmarks of cancer

  1. Cancer cells stimulate their own growth.
  2. Resist growth-suppressing signals.
  3. Resist apoptosis (cell death).
  4. Are able to multiply indefinitely.
  5. Can grow new blood vessels for tumour growth.
  6. Spread to other parts of the body (metastasis).
  7. In 2010 Weinberg (18) updated his list by suggesting that there was a seventh hallmark, "reprogramming of energy metabolism". This is an important characteristic of cancer. However, he did not go as far as explaining how or why this reprogramming occurs.

Symptoms of cancer

When a cancer starts, it produces no symptoms. Signs and symptoms only appear as it grows, progresses or ulcerates. At first, the symptoms may be mild, non-specific, and similar to the symptoms that occur with a variety of other conditions. It is not uncommon for early-stage patients to be treated for other ailments that cause the same symptoms.

The local symptoms of a cancer are caused by the mass of a tumour, or its ulceration. Blockages, lumps, swelling, bleeding or the build-up of fluid in the chest or abdomen can occur. Initially cancers are usually painless, and pain occurs only in advanced stages.

The systemic or generalised symptoms of cancer are weight loss, fever, being excessively tired, and changes to the skin. Other more specific symptoms for some types of cancers may include clubbing of the fingers and nails, and nerve disorders.

When metastasis occurs, the lymph nodes, liver or spleen can swell, affected bones may fracture, and neurological symptoms can occur.

Cancer is a disease of energy metabolism

All life, whether we are talking about plants, animals, germs or the modern-day economy, is dependent on energy. Otto Warburg was well aware of this, and in 1906 decided to investigate how cancer cells obtained and used their energy.

The fact that cancer is a hotchpotch of different growths, affecting different organs and tissues, convinced Warburg that cancer was a problem of energy metabolism. Nothing else would explain the myriad of different ways that cancer manifests.

All animal cells are powered by aerobic respiration, which is the production of energy using oxygen. If there is insufficient oxygen, such as when swimming under water, sprinting flat out, or lifting weights to the max, then energy is created anaerobically. Anaerobic energy always produces lactic acid, and in 1924 Warburg showed that cancer cells produce lactic acid. The process by which cancer cells ferment glucose rather than burning it with oxygen is known as the Warburg effect. The Warburg effect occurs in all cancer cells without exception. (19, 21, 34, 42, 84)

Warburg concluded that cancer is caused by a permanent alteration to the respiration mechanism in a cell. This alteration involves damaging of the cell's mitochondria, so that it no longer produces sufficient ATP (the normal energy molecule). To compensate for the lack of ATP, cancer cells generate energy by fermenting glucose. Fermentation is done without oxygen, in fact oxygen stops the fermentation process. (19, 34, 84)

Research as early as 1987 proved that cancer has metabolic and not genetic origins. (22) This was confirmed by work at the University of Vermont done by Warren Schaeffer. It was all ignored by the National Cancer Institute (an organisation that represents the interests of the cancer industry).

"When cancer is framed as a metabolic disease, the entire paradigm of treatment is turned inside out. Doctors are treating a single disease, and they are treating "sick" cells, not the immortal super-cells that genetic theory paints them as." (27, 34, 35, 42, 84)

Causes of cancer

Continual eating. The average American has seventeen "eating events" per day. Their blood glucose is continually elevated, and insulin and other hormones are kept at artificially high (or low) levels all day. A nonstop diet high in sugar, refined and processed foods (39, 41, 43, 44) is almost certainly the major cause of cancer. Cancer cells are highly dependent on glucose, and die if they have to use ketones or fats for energy.

Damaged mitochondria. Mitochondria are the energy generators in every cell. They take the glucose in the blood and convert it into ATP, the energy molecule. When mitochondria are damaged, cells revert to fermenting glucose to get their energy. Cancer rapidly appears in this environment. Mitochondria are discussed below, along with a list of causes of damage.

Stress - Negative attitude, constant thoughts of complaint, powerlessness, isolation, blockages. There is a strong association between cancer and feeling lonely, socially isolated, or grieving after the death of a loved one. Depression and insufficient sleep are stressful. (31, 37, 38, 61, 62, 79)

Inflammation (often caused by stress).

Lack of physical activity. The modern lifestyle involves long periods of sitting and inactivity. Exercise need not be strenuous, but the human body needs to walk and move for several hours every day. Inactivity is deadly. (83)

Lack of oxygen. At sea level, pristine air comprises 20% oxygen. In urban areas, where vehicles, heaters, power stations and other exhausts spew carbon dioxide and other gases into the atmosphere, the oxygen level falls to around 10%. When combined with low levels of physical activity, most people simply do not get enough oxygen.

Deficiency of vitamin D and sunlight. Having sufficient vitamin D protects against all types of cancer. (46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 91, 98, 99)

High fat diet - mainly as a cause of non-melanoma skin cancers. A study (60) reported that associations between total fat consumption and the incidence of breast, colon, and prostate cancer appeared to be independent of total caloric intake or the ratio of polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat. In general, the effects of calories are thought to be restricted largely to tumour initiation, whereas fat exerts its principal effect on tumour promotion and growth. Certainly, the effect on the incidence of actinic keratosis reported (60) appears to be related predominantly to the reduction in fat intake and to be independent of caloric intake. In the dietary-intervention group calories from fat were replaced with calories from other sources to prevent reductions in body weight. (55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60)


Early in the development of life upon the earth, mitochondria existed as separate, independent bacteria. Through a twist of fate, one of these bacteria found its way into another cell, where it continued to live. When this cell reproduced, it reproduced with the mitochondrial bacterium included. This relationship proved advantageous for both the mitochondria and the host cell. The mitochondria specialised in producing energy, and the host cell specialised in all the other aspects of cellular health and reproduction.

Mitochondria got so good at manufacturing ATP (adenosine triphosphate, the cell's energy molecule) that they were incorporated to power every animal. At any time, an adult human has about 250 grams (9oz) of ATP stored in its cells. What is amazing is how rapidly this ATP is produced and used - every day a human produces and uses their body weight in ATP.

The production of ATP requires oxygen and produces free radicals. To neutralise these damaging free radicals, mitochondria produce antioxidants uric acid, glutathione, lipoic acid, vitamins C and E, and antioxidant enzymes.

It follows that damaged or aged mitochondria do not produce sufficient energy, and do not fully neutralise free radicals. Both toxins and viruses can damage a cell's mitochondria.

Causes of damage to mitochondria

Why oncologists don't get it, and don't want to get it

In 1971 US president Nixon declared war on cancer. With taxpayer support and a massive budget, Americans believed it would take only a few years to find a general cure for cancer. Nearly half a century later, cancer is the second biggest cause of death in America and could soon be the first. What went wrong?

Under the Western medical system, and particularly in the USA, cancer is an extraordinarily profitable disease to treat. In the USA in 2017, a course of radiation therapy cost $7,500-$26,000. Chemotherapy can cost between $5,000 and $30,000 per month. Newly approved cancer drugs cost between $10,000 and $30,000 per month. Doctors and oncologists are paid a percentage of the drugs and treatments that they recommend.

Pharmaceutical companies, with their immense wealth and lobbying power, now control their own regulators, all medical regulators and associations, university teaching and curricula, and the funds for most cancer research.

At present the majority view is that cancer is a genetic disease. This is what doctors are taught, this is how current medical treatments are oriented, and this is what pharmaceutical companies want us to believe. If researchers can identify the specific genes that cause each type of cancer, then it becomes possible to develop patented pharmaceutical and genetic treatments. This is the Holy Grail of cancer research, because patented products that patients and their loved ones believe can save their life are so profitable. Witness a number of new drugs in 2017 priced at over $100,000 per patient per year.

Unfortunately for the various cancer industries, the explanation that cancer is a genetic disease does not stack up. Cancers are a hotchpotch of different growths that seem impossible to tie down to specific genes. The failure of the immune system to destroy the first few cancer cells, the mechanism by which they take hold and grow, and the way they move to other parts of the body (metastasis), does not make sense from a genetic point of view.

3BP is an effective treatment using the energy model

In the late 1990s a molecular biologist Young Hee Ko realised that all cancer cells needed a way to get rid of the large quantities of lactic acid they were producing while fermenting glucose. She surmised that a molecule by the name of 3-bromopyruvate had a structure similar to lactic acid and could enter cancer cells with ease. In her laboratory she confirmed that 3BP did indeed enter cancer cells, and it killed cancer cells more effectively than any other known cancer drug or molecule, especially when combined with other chemotherapeutic agents. 3BP worked with every type of cancer she tested: brain, breast, colon, kidney, liver, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate and skin. Her tests also showed that 3BP attacked only cancer cells, and left other cells intact. (86)

Starting in 2002, as Ko tried to move her research forward and eventually into human trials, she suffered a series of political, administrative and legal attacks that resulted in her termination as a cancer researcher and the effective loss of her 3BP patents.

In the Netherlands in 2009 the first human trial of 3BP finally confirmed its total effectiveness. Ko's patented formulation was injected by a specialist into the liver of a near-terminal liver cancer patient. Eight months later, the only signs of cancer around his body were the remains of the now-dead tumours. (20) However, funding problems and lawsuits held up further trials.

A number of alternative cancer clinics started using 3BP for cancer treatment. However, the suspicious deaths of several people who were treated with 3BP at a cancer centre in Germany has put even the unapproved use of 3BP on hold. German authorities have reason to believe that the patients at this clinic died under suspicious circumstances, and the investigation is still under way.

3BP is a cheap cancer therapy. The cost of the 3BP itself for a full treatment is around $100. (20, 27, 73, 85, 86, 87, 88)

Anthelmintic benzimidazole drugs

Scientists and medical researchers have known for decades that some anthelmintic (anti-parasite) drugs are an effective cancer treatment. Their anti-cancer properties were documented years ago. (65) It seems that they interfere with the ability of cancer cells to use glucose as their fuel. Unfortunately there is no money available for further research using these cheap, patent-expired old drugs.

Anthelmintic drugs have been used for more than sixty years to treat gastrointestinal parasites like giardia, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms and pinworms. Merck pharmaceuticals started using anthelmintic drugs in 1961 for farm animals, and human use soon followed. Fenbendazole was initially used in the animal products and mebendazole in deworming products for humans. Fenbendazole is administered orally in both large and small animals including dogs, pigs, cats, cattle, horses, rabbits and fish. When used as directed it is considered safe.

Fenbendazole, mebendazole and albendazole are a group of drugs called benzimidazoles, which have been used as anthelmintics. While human observations are limited, one study found that a single oral dose of fenbendazole of up to 2,000 mg per person, or 500 mg per person for 10 consecutive days, were well-tolerated and safe. (63)

There don't seem to be any published human clinical trials on fenbendazole. It was never officially approved for human use, is sold for veterinary use without a prescription, and its patent has expired. For these reasons it is made by generic drug manufacturers, is dirt cheap, and there is no money available for further research or investigation.

Mebendazole was approved for human use but its patent has expired. It requires a prescription and is one of only two drugs approved to treat human pinworms. The fact that it was approved for human use decades ago means that studies are available. (64) Of course, there is no money to investigate its use as a cancer treatment.

The takeaway here is that we have an inexpensive, effective, safe, readily-available class of compounds that have been shown to both prevent and reverse many forms of cancer, but which remain unapproved or prohibited.

Cancer remedies / treatments / prevention

Cancer is a serious disease. Some types of cancer such as melanoma are urgently life-threatening, and most cancers can lead to more severe complications if left untreated. If a cancer is suspected, it is essential to consult a healthcare professional for diagnosis and treatment. Natural remedies should not replace conventional treatment and should be discussed with your healthcare provider.


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